Miscellaneous Subjects


AUPC – Automatic Uplink Power Control

Automatic Uplink Power Control (AUPC) is a feature whereby a local modem is permitted to adjust its own output power level in order to attempt to maintain the Eb/No at the remote modem.

AUPC provides a mechanism to counteract changes in atmospheric conditions (eg rain), which in turn affects the attenuation of the atmosphere and can degrade the performance of a satellite link. It does this by monitoring the distant end Eb/No and automatically adjusting the local Tx power of a satellite link to try and maintain the specified distant end Eb/No figure.


Bit-Error-Rate (BER)

In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.

The bit error rate (BER) is the number of bit errors per unit time.

The bit error ratio (also BER) is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. Bit error ratio is a unitless performance measure, often expressed as a percentage.

The bit error probability pe is the expectation value of the bit error ratio. The bit error ratio can be considered as an approximate estimate of the bit error probability. This estimate is accurate for a long time interval and a high number of bit errors.


Echo Suppression and Echo Cancellation

Echo suppression and echo cancellation are methods used in telephony to improve voice quality by preventing echo from being created or removing it after it is already present. In addition to improving subjective audio quality, echo suppression increases the capacity achieved through silence suppression by preventing echo from traveling across a network.

Echo suppression and cancellation methods are commonly called acoustic echo suppression (AES) and acoustic echo cancellation (AEC), and more rarely line echo cancellation (LEC). In some cases, these terms are more precise, as there are various types and causes of echo with unique characteristics, including acoustic echo (sounds from a loudspeaker being reflected and recorded by a microphone, which can vary substantially over time) and line echo (electrical impulses caused by, e.g., coupling between the sending and receiving wires, impedance mismatches, electrical reflections, etc., which varies much less than acoustic echo). In practice, however, the same techniques are used to treat all types of echo, so an acoustic echo canceller can cancel line echo as well as acoustic echo. AEC in particular is commonly used to refer to echo cancelers in general, regardless of whether they were intended for acoustic echo, line echo, or both.


Jumbo Frame

In computer networking, jumbo frames or jumbos are Ethernet frames with more than 1500 bytes of payload, the limit set by the IEEE 802.3 standard. Conventionally, jumbo frames can carry up to 9000 bytes of payload, but variations exist and some care must be taken using the term. Many Gigabit Ethernet switches and Gigabit Ethernet network interface cards can support jumbo frames. Some Fast Ethernet switches and Fast Ethernet network interface cards can also support jumbo frames.

Quantization Noise

Quantization noise is a model of quantization error introduced by quantization in the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) in telecommunication systems and signal processing. It is a rounding error between the analog input voltage to the ADC and the output digitized value. The noise is non-linear and signal-dependent.